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电子钢琴(Digital Piano)常见问答
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话题: 电子钢琴(Digital Piano)常见问答
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电子钢琴(Digital Piano)常见问答 4 年, 4 月 之前 评分: 4  
I. 常识
Q: 电钢琴和电子琴有什么区别?

电钢琴(digital piano)的主要功能是仿造钢琴(即声学钢琴、acoustic piano)的键触感和音色。电子琴(synthesizer)更注重于音色库的多样化和辅助弹奏编曲的自动化功能。两者最低端的产品有些近似。

因此,决定电钢琴好坏的要素就是它的仿真度。

Q: 电钢琴还是钢琴?

电钢琴的优点:
* 价格比钢琴便宜一个量级
* 可以插上耳机独自弹
* 不用调音、维护
* 占地少、搬家方便
* 有些型号可以连接电脑、输出、录音、播放
* 电钢的技术更新一直没有停过,正在触感和音色方面无限趋近声钢。目前的电钢与10年前的比,已经不可同日而语。

电钢琴的缺点
* 总体音效和dynamic不如声学钢琴
* 触感欠佳的型号会把手“弹坏”(即不习惯弹声钢,表现力也变差)

Q: 基本价位如何?

价钱和性能之间有一个“厂”字形曲线,当然横的那一画是略略上扬的。电钢琴的厂字拐弯大概出现在1000刀出头到2000刀,这是我个人的观点。这是对于新琴而言,二手琴另说。1000刀以下很少能找到我定义下的好琴。我的标准是手感和音色接近钢琴,到一个可以接受(为替代品)的程度。5000刀以上,钱就花在了更多voice,更大speaker,木制键盘,以及一些锦上添花的功能上了,比如USB,LCD,LAN port, music finder, transpose, 更多内置曲…这其中我只觉得USB是重要的。

也有人觉得电钢不必仿造声钢上的所有物理特征(尤其不准备弹古典的),这样选择面会宽一些。

II. 电钢琴设备
Q: 推荐几款电钢?

如果1000以下就甭折腾了,1000-2000推荐kawai CN33和yamaha CLP320/330,3000及以上推荐kawai CA63/CA93或CLP340。再高的话,就声钢吧。我是迷上了yamaha和kawai了,呵呵。可以上guitarcenter看看,然后上网查yamaha kawai的dealer,很多琴只有dealer有售。

详见(VII. 品牌型号评价)。


Q: 监听耳机?

推荐Bose的QuietComfort QC-15 (不推荐他家的QC-3)。含adapter。 [qianq]

III. 触感技术
Q: 触感技术有哪几种?

按仿真程度有以下几种:

* synth action
电子琴式的“弹簧”键
* (semi-)weighted action
键上带些重量
* (balanced) hammer action
键上挂小锤子
* graded hammer action
高低音小锤子重量不同


后三种都可以算电钢琴,但打造成钢琴替代品的型号应该都是最后一种。serious的钢琴手、对触感挑剔的当选择graded hammer技术。
这些小锤子模拟声钢中锤子击打琴弦的手感,但是不发声,这种机制跟最初的弹簧的区别是非常明显的。在dealer处往往会有action的模型,看看那个很有意思,比如说kawai家CN系列的RH和CA系列的RM3的机制模型,你看了以后就会明白为什么RM3比RH要更灵敏。

Q: 那let-off又是什么咚咚?

let-off就是慢慢按,在按到底的时候会手头感觉咯噔一下,非常轻,非常微妙的感觉。当然是手上的bump/knotch,而不是声音的咯噔,也叫做escapement或set-off。关于let-off是存在争议的,一些人觉得,轻柔演奏的时候钢琴家用这一“咯噔”来判断离按到底还有多远距离,另一些人觉得是在傻傻地复制acoustic钢琴的缺陷。但是我个人喜欢,因为在回键的时候由于这个mechanism的存在,键不会那么紧跟手指,也就不会觉得springy。有人说let-off可以用来演奏极轻的音,但是如果依靠它来演奏的话,那个音已经几近听不见了。


Q: 各品牌电钢的触感如何比较?

各厂商的中高端型号里用不同品种的graded hammer技术,比如

yamaha(从低端到高端):
graded hammer standard (GHS)
graded hammer effect (GH/GHE)
graded hammer effect 3 (GH3)

kawai(从低端到高端):
responsive hammer (RH)
graded hammer (RM3)
grand feel (RM3的升级)

先说手感。手感对我而言,最少最少也要达到跟yamaha的GH(graded hammer)或者kawai的RH(responsive hammer)同等水平,这已经是最低要求,像GHS就只能算电子琴级别的,我弹完第一个和弦就不想再弹下去。我认为,一上手就能说出的区别,就算巨大的区别了。在GH的基础上再加几百刀,就可以达到GH3。我觉得yamaha的GH3跟kawai的RH是同等级别的,而kawai家CA系列的graded hammer更牛,可以达到乱真效果。如果再加几百刀能有let-off,这个我也认为值得。BTW,在键的重量问题上,我side by side弹过yamaha家的电钢和声钢,感觉电钢的键比声钢还重,还真是矫枉过正,生怕别人认出它是电钢呀。

IV. 音色技术
Q: 音色

再说音色。音色很多时候是见仁见智的事情,我想,采样源很重要,几重采样也应该很重要,但是我听不出三、四、五重采样之间的明显差别。

Q: 为什么复音数(polyphony)重要?

再有就是关于polyphony,这个是你能同时按响的键数,32是不够的,64就够,96就太够,128绝对多余。有人要问了,为什么32不够呢,难道你还能同时按下32个键不成?问题在于,你踩下踏板的时候,所有的harmonics应该都响,如果是32,就会有的泛音不响。钢琴是强大和丰盛的乐器,泛音是它的关键。另外不要忘了,因为立体声的存在,一切都要折半,也就是说,64-polyphony的琴,只能有32个音同时响,因为每个音都有两个声道。另外还有layering,也叫dual voice(比如你把钢琴和弦乐的音色叠加在一起),这样的话,又要再折一半。

Q: Imaging (多重采样)
采样。在声钢上,当用不同力度弹奏的时候,不光是音量有区别,连音色也是有区别的。电钢不但模拟它的音量,也要模拟其音色变化。比如说三层采样,就是说用三个不同力度按下声钢的键,录制其音色,也就是采样三次。采样层数越多,音色变化就越丰富。

Q: String resonance
CN33很cool,在不踩踏板的情况下,轻轻按住一个键(但不发声),然后敲一下另一个键(但不按住),这两个键之间有泛音关系的时候,你就可以听到共鸣,跟acoustic上的一样,这叫string resonance,使得钢琴的声音比较丰满,要知道,泛音是音色的决定因素之一。string resonance在CLP系列要到相当高端(380)才会有。

Q:key-off sample (离键采样)
在声钢上,放开一个键的时候,damper贴到弦上,让弦哑音,但是不是立马就哑掉的,要花那么一点点的时间。有些电钢就直接把音量调到0,但是有离键采样的电钢则模拟声钢,搞一个附加的录音作为尾巴。有的人认为这简直就是在复制声钢的瑕疵。

Q:reverb
就是reverberation,这个是每弹一个音以后有一个小小的回声,模拟在音乐厅演出的回声效果。我的CN33是可以选择是否reverb的,选择reverb以后,的确丰满很多。

Q:half-damper effect (半踏效果)
钢琴的damper是毛毡做的,所以在半踩不踩之间,在damper放开的不同程度之间,声音是有区别的。这个不同的制音程度,也由电钢模拟了。电钢会根据你踩的深度来决定踏板效果。

V. 其他考虑
Q: 喇叭

说到speaker,较高端的钢琴往往有好的/大的speaker,可既然我买digital的一个原因是可以私下练习,那么9成以上时间都会戴耳机弹,大喇叭就没有了用武之地。2x20w的内置音箱对于stage怕是不行,但对于一个房间来说完全足够了,退一万步,还可以接音响。音乐爱好者如果有条件,大多是会有好音响的吧。

对于一个一般大小的屋子,比如说书房卧室之类,几个音箱功率加起来到24瓦就差不多了。对于较大屋子,比如客厅之类,加起来3、40就差不多了。

Q: portable vs. cabinet?

再有,关于是否portable,我开始觉得portable会更实惠,因为没有下面那个花架子嘛。但看得越多,我的标准就提得越高(budget也一路上涨),我就越感觉到portable没法做到这一点。高端的琴里面,很少找得到portable的,portable的speaker也一般较差。除非经常带琴演出,否则还是非portable的好。

Q:split?
在电钢上,你可以选择一个音,从这个音一下用一个音色,这个音以上用另外一个音色,比如低音部分用钢琴,高音部分用小提琴。这样听起来好像是两种乐器在演奏。

Q:midi-in, midi-out
就是说你可否把你的电钢当作midi键盘使用。有的是cable连接,有的除了midi接口意外还有USB,这样就更方便。


Q:line-in/line-out (也叫Aux in/out)
这样你就可以直接把你的电钢接到音箱。如果接到录音机,可以直接实施内录,效果非常清晰,没有杂音。


Q;transpose
有的电钢有移调功能,这样一来,跟一些非C调乐器合作就方便多了,比如小号,黑管,sax之类。

Q:dual voice
你弹的每个音,就有两种voice(音色)同时响。

Q:木制键盘
这个会让你多花很多钱,弹上去你当然会感到跟声钢一样,但这也是个难伺候的主儿。遇到个天阴雨湿的日子,感觉会有所不同。店主跟我说CA系列的电钢的确能让人感觉到季节差异。木键盘这个“身份的象征”还真有点risky。

VI. 挑选的一些窍门
* 让别人弹,自己站开一定距离听

* 音量调小,或者干脆关掉,看键盘是不是发出太大噪音,是否键盘有点clicky

* 关掉音量也能让你focus在键感上,让你评价它的touch

* 左右摇一下键,看它们是否移动,移动太大是不行的

* 感受一下键重,是不是合适 (声钢的键重一般是50克上下)

* 如果你感觉bouncy, springy,就是回键的时候,键向上push你的手指很严重,那是不行的

* 看看声音能保持多久?你非常使劲地弹下中央C,按着不要放手,看它什么时候停止响。如果10秒钟之内停了,你就pass掉这个琴。

* 看看是不是touch sensitive,就是说,你用很多种不同力度击键,看它的音量是不是有相应的变化。有的比较差的电钢也就只有两三个level,或者根本没有。touch sensitivity非常、非常重要,长期弹奏不sensitive的电钢,会损害你的表现力。

VII. 品牌型号评价

1. yamaha CLP330 vs. kawai CN33

CLP330和CN33之间的选择很艰难,但它们跟其他牌子/型号之间的取舍却很清晰。

CN33有string resonance和let-off,连CA63都没有的。let-off,这个CLP要到340及以上才会有,CN居然从33就开始有了。

CLP330的键盘摸起来比较塑料感(要想不感觉塑料得上340),滑滑的,还反光,而且有点springy,就是说手指上抬的时候,键盘有点push手指。我又弹了弹U1,感觉是一样的,只是U1更灵敏,看来他们是忠实于acoustic的,但我不大喜欢这种感觉,有点像电子琴。CN33的手感无与伦比,仿ivory,按键力度与回键都完美。

我原先认为CLP330胜在音色,而CN33胜在手感,因为音色和手感都是我不能放弃的,故此很是纠结。但是我今天开始真正欣赏Kawai的音色了,比较mellow, warm, dark,rich,比yamaha更有回味。yamaha较为明快的音色一开始很吸引人,但是不够耐听,有人甚至用tinny来形容。yamaha和kawai的电钢之间的音色区别,与它们的声学钢琴之间的区别是类似的。kawai进入数码钢琴市场还不满10年,但进步很大,CN33是去年5月才出的新产品,话说它比它前身的改进不是一点点。

说说一些我个人在乎的特点吧。CLP330可以直接录制到wav文件,CN33只能录midi,但是它有line-in, line-out。

CLP是最老牌的电钢琴系列,现在也非常的popular,所以resale value会很好。330已经四五年了吧,电钢的技术更新还是能感觉出来的,当然CLP4系列马上就要出来,也许会有更好的。

我同意qianq的说法,kawai的CA系列suprisingly good,我还想把这个的范围扩展到CN系列,因为它们的质量和配置达到了其他品牌很高端才能有的水平,而价格仍然可爱。

这个是kawai琴的catalog,可以用来查一些参数:
www.kawai.de/service/catalogue_2011_eg.pdf


2. 其他型号

kawai CA63 (新型号是CA65): CA线的dynamics用的是ultra Progressive Harmonic Imaging Sound Technology,比CN线多了一个ultra,自然在力度上和音色会更细致。CA线的action叫做RM3,比RH要高一个档次,音色种类也多些,喇叭又多又好。但是CA63没有let-off,又没有string resonance。但是对于不在乎let-off和string resonance的人来说,CA63则非常经济实惠。

CA93(新型号是CA95): :绝对好琴,几乎完美无缺,但要有米。我买了CN33以后,一旦有机会回到店里,还是要去弹一下CA93,流一阵口水。

CS3:这个是kawai家的新型号,非常漂亮,action也非常灵敏,只是功能少了点,价格也贵了点。CS3没有line-in/line-out是个很大的turn-off,要录音只能插两个耳机接口之一,一旦插了,另一只耳机就只有单声道,而录音也只剩单声道(我把H4N拿过去试的)。

yamaha motif XF8: 音色真好,就跟大三角一模一样,不过我去试的时候它正连着一个高档音箱,不知如果不这样的话,会不会还有这样惊艳的效果。

yamaha ydp223: 在guitar center有二三十台琴的样子,一路弹过去,还真是喜欢YDP223。相比motif XF8起来,YDP223就是一台upright,但是也是其余中的最好了。

yamaha DGX-640,$799: 这个我没有试过之前看评论非常好 ... 今天我去guitarcenter泡了两个小时,先看了DGX640,当时感觉不错,可是有比较就有鉴别啊,当我弹了YDP223以后才觉得DGX640的差距,DGX640的声音还是闷(虽然两个喇叭看起来挺大),所谓live grand的音色没有预想中的好,手感也不够好。音色奇多,每个都比较烂,嘿嘿。在看过了kawai CN和CA系列琴以后再回头想这个,就只有三个词可以评价:springy, springy, springy。

roland FP-4,$1499,在不同地方都一直见人推荐roland,但我觉得还是差一些,手感音色都是... 今天买完以后,从跟店员的聊天中知道,他们也卖roland的,但有过一些bad experience,返修什么的,质量不是那么robust,所以卖得少。

casio AP-420,$1099: 这个网上评论不是非常好,但是我在朋友家试过,不算差,但是没法跟CN33比。

yamaha有一款造成三角琴的电钢,是几年前的老型号,used的,摆在店里,只有钢琴音色,什么其他花招都没有,娱乐功能降到最低,但是那个action,啧啧啧!型号没记下来,好像是avant系列里的。


3. 不饭williams, korg, kurzweil, casio, roland的电钢

他们毕竟是电声乐器的大牛,不生产acoustic钢琴,他们的琴,action方面比生产声钢的厂家往往要差一些。音色方面他们倒不一定差,因为采样反正也都是照着顶级声钢来采,大不了声钢不是他们自己生产的,有什么关系。个人看法。
 
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最后编辑: 2013-09-04 21:35 由: zjiang.
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回复:电子钢琴(Digital Piano)常见问答 10 月 之前 评分: 0  
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