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纽时:常春藤对亚裔的潜规则 勤奋和高分是徒劳的
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话题: 纽时:常春藤对亚裔的潜规则 勤奋和高分是徒劳的
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纽时:常春藤对亚裔的潜规则 勤奋和高分是徒劳的 5 年, 1 月 之前 评分: 4  
美国知名学府所谓的“个性”等录取标准,可能得到主观和不公平的运用,这种名额限制的潜规则对亚裔学生不利,会对所有学生传递一个信息:勤奋和高分可能是徒劳的。

高中毕业生将于本月末递交大学申请,并开始等待有关未来四年将会在哪里度过的消息。他们可能不会意识到的是,结果将取决于他们的种族。如果你是亚裔人士,你进入精英大学的几率几乎肯定会低于白人。

亚裔占美国总人口的5.6%,而在常春藤大学中,亚裔学生所占比例为12%至18%。但如果用客观的录取标准(成绩、考试分数、学业荣誉以及课外活动)来衡量,这些学校的亚裔学生所占比例偏低。毕竟,在主要根据考试和成绩招生的顶级公立高中,亚裔学生所占比例高达40%至70%。这些高中包括纽约市的史岱文森高中(Stuyvesant)和布朗克斯科学高中(Bronx Science)、旧金山的洛威尔(Lowell)以及弗吉尼亚州亚历山德里亚的托马斯·杰弗逊科技高中(Thomas Jefferson)。

在2009年一项针对9000多名知名大学申请者的研究中,社会学家托马斯·J·埃斯彭席德(Thomas J. Espenshade)和亚历山德里亚·沃尔顿·雷德福(Alexandria Walton Radford)发现,与学业成绩相同的亚裔学生相比,白人学生被录取的几率高出三倍。

听起来很熟悉吗?在20世纪20年代,随着高分的犹太学生开始与WASP(祖先是英国新教徒的美国人——译注)预科学校学生展开竞争,常春藤学校开始询问家庭背景,并寻求通过“性格”、“活力”、“勇敢”以及“领导力”等模煳的资格标准,来限制犹太学生录取人数。就如社会学家杰罗姆·卡拉贝尔(Jerome Karabel)在其2005年出版的有关哈佛、耶鲁和普林斯顿招生史的书中所记载的,直到20世纪60年代早期,这些非正式的犹太学生名额限制才被取消。

在20世纪20年代,人们会问:有这么多犹太学生的哈佛还是哈佛吗?如今,我们会问:有如此多亚裔学生的哈佛还是哈佛吗?耶鲁大学58%的学生是白人,18%是亚裔人。如果两者的数据颠倒,会是一场灾难吗?

就像记者丹尼尔·格尔登(Daniel Golden)在2006年出版的《招生的代价》(The Price of Admission)中所揭示的,人们更多地关注公立大学基于种族的平权措施(最高法院已经下令缩减此类措施,可能很快会完全取缔此类措施),而不太关注精英学校特别照顾捐赠者和校友(绝大多数是白人)子女的情况。

对于中产阶级和富裕的白人来说,学业优秀的亚裔美国人带来种种棘手问题,涉及特权和权力、成绩和机会。据称,一些白人家长不愿将孩子送到那些变得“过于亚裔化”的著名公立学校,担心自己的孩子会陷于孤立。许多有财力的白人纷纷把孩子送到提倡“进步”教学理念、不推行“应试教育”并提供艺术和音乐课程(但不教授钢琴、小提琴等“亚裔擅长的乐器”)的私校。同样,亚裔儿童也很难进入某些顶级私立学校。

精英大学的名额限制是真实存在的“潜规则”。西北大学的亚裔学生告诉我,他们对自己的身份感到羞耻,他们觉得自己被视作一群没有个性的书呆子和乐器演奏高手。当他们取得成功时,同学就会说这是因为他们“是亚裔人”。他们的聪明和勤奋变成了拖累。

自从1965年对移民法进行全面修订以来,美国已经从台湾、韩国和印度等地吸引了数百万受过高等教育的雄心勃勃的移民。我们正是因为这些移民的优秀表现和成就才欢迎他们。但我们现在却因为其子女继承了父母的职业道德和对优质教育的信念而歧视他们。这是何等的弄巧成拙啊。

需要说明的是,我并不寻求传播“模范少数族裔”的神话——亚裔美国人是一个多元化的群体,包括没有正当移民身份的餐厅工人、重新安置的难民,以及人们比较熟悉的医生和工程师。我也不赞同法律教授蔡美儿(Amy Chua)有害的“虎妈”陈词滥调,这种观点将亚裔儿童的成功归功于父母过多(甚至是病态)的管教,而不是个人努力,从而贬低了亚裔儿童。

一些教育专家、家长和学生担心,如果录取标准仅仅是学习成绩,由于社会经济因素和长期的考分差距,白人和亚裔人将会在精英大学中占据很大比例,而黑人和拉丁裔学生会非常少。我们仍需要实施平权措施,帮助学生比例偏少的人群,包括黑人、拉丁裔、美洲印第安人、东南亚裔美国人,以及来自所有背景的低收入家庭学生。

但对白人和亚裔中高收入家庭的孩子来说,竞争机会应该是平等的。值得指出的是,许多重点公立学校高分学生的父母是劳工阶层移民,而不是受过良好教育的专业人士。金(Kim)、辛格(Singh)和黄(Wong)等姓氏不应引起特别的审查。

我们希望让我们的精英大学录取优秀和全面发展的人才,而不只是杰出的考生。但令我担心的是,“个性”和“独特性”等标准可能得到主观和不公平的运用,对亚裔人士不利,就像当年犹太申请人遭受的限制一样。我猜测,在许多高校的招生办公室,一个入围英特尔(Intel)科技人才探索奖,同时也是致告别辞的学生代表、学校乐团首席小提琴手的白人学生会脱颖而出,被视为优秀人才,而那些具有相同简历(和社会经济背景)的亚裔美国人则不会。

我们对待这些孩子的方式将会对美国的未来产生影响。如果美国一些最知名的高等学府对高分亚裔学生设置名额限制的潜规则,我们会向所有学生传递这样一个信息:勤奋和高分可能是徒劳无益的。
 
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